Construct a generative AI-based content material moderation answer on Amazon SageMaker JumpStart



Content material moderation performs a pivotal function in sustaining on-line security and upholding the values and requirements of internet sites and social media platforms. Its significance is underscored by the safety it gives customers from publicity to inappropriate content material, safeguarding their well-being in digital areas. For instance, within the promoting trade, content material moderation serves to protect manufacturers from unfavorable associations, thereby contributing to model elevation and income progress. Advertisers prioritize their model’s alignment with applicable content material to uphold their repute and avert damaging publicity. Content material moderation additionally assumes crucial significance within the finance and healthcare sectors, the place it serves a number of features. It performs an necessary function in figuring out and safeguarding delicate private identifiable and well being info (PII, PHI). By adhering to inside requirements and practices and complying with exterior rules, content material moderation enhances digital safety for customers. This manner, it prevents the inadvertent sharing of confidential information on public platforms, making certain the preservation of person privateness and information safety.

On this submit, we introduce a novel technique to carry out content material moderation on picture information with multi-modal pre-training and a big language mannequin (LLM). With multi-modal pre-training, we will instantly question the picture content material based mostly on a set of questions of curiosity and the mannequin will have the ability to reply these questions. This allows customers to speak with the picture to substantiate if it comprises any inappropriate content material that violates the group’s insurance policies. We use the highly effective producing functionality of LLMs to generate the ultimate determination together with protected/unsafe labels and class sort. As well as, by designing a immediate, we will make an LLM generate the outlined output format, similar to JSON format. The designed immediate template permits the LLM to find out if the picture violates the moderation coverage, establish the class of violation, clarify why, and supply the output in a structured JSON format.

We use BLIP-2 because the multi-modal pre-training technique. BLIP-2 is without doubt one of the state-of-the-art fashions in multi-modal pre-training and outperforms a lot of the current strategies in visible query answering, picture captioning, and picture textual content retrieval. For our LLM, we use Llama 2, the subsequent technology open-source LLM, which outperforms current open-source language fashions on many benchmarks, together with reasoning, coding, proficiency, and data checks. The next diagram illustrates the answer elements.

Challenges in content material moderation

Conventional content material moderation strategies, similar to human-based moderation, can’t sustain with the rising quantity of user-generated content material (UGC). As the quantity of UGC will increase, human moderators can turn out to be overwhelmed and wrestle to average content material successfully. This ends in a poor person expertise, excessive moderation prices, and model danger. Human-based moderation can be vulnerable to errors, which can lead to inconsistent moderation and biased selections. To handle these challenges, content material moderation powered by machine studying (ML) has emerged as an answer. ML algorithms can analyze giant volumes of UGC and establish content material that violates the group’s insurance policies. ML fashions could be educated to acknowledge patterns and establish problematic content material, similar to hate speech, spam, and inappropriate materials. In line with the examine Defend your customers, model, and finances with AI-powered content material moderation, ML-powered content material moderation will help organizations reclaim as much as 95% of the time their groups spend moderating content material manually. This enables organizations to focus their assets on extra strategic duties, similar to neighborhood constructing and content material creation. ML-powered content material moderation may also cut back moderation prices as a result of it’s extra environment friendly than human-based moderation.

Regardless of some great benefits of ML-powered content material moderation, it nonetheless has additional enchancment area. The effectiveness of ML algorithms closely depends on the standard of the info they’re educated on. When fashions are educated utilizing biased or incomplete information, they’ll make misguided moderation selections, exposing organizations to model dangers and potential authorized liabilities. The adoption of ML-based approaches for content material moderation brings a number of challenges that necessitate cautious consideration. These challenges embody:

Buying labeled information – This is usually a pricey course of, particularly for advanced content material moderation duties that require coaching labelers. This value could make it difficult to assemble giant sufficient datasets to coach a supervised ML mannequin with ease. Moreover, the accuracy of the mannequin closely depends on the standard of the coaching information, and biased or incomplete information may end up in inaccurate moderation selections, resulting in model danger and authorized liabilities.
Mannequin generalization – That is crucial to adopting ML-based approaches. A mannequin educated on one dataset could not generalize nicely to a different dataset, significantly if the datasets have completely different distributions. Due to this fact, it’s important to make sure that the mannequin is educated on a various and consultant dataset to make sure it generalizes nicely to new information.
Operational effectivity – That is one other problem when utilizing standard ML-based approaches for content material moderation. Continually including new labels and retraining the mannequin when new courses are added could be time-consuming and expensive. Moreover, it’s important to make sure that the mannequin is repeatedly up to date to maintain up with adjustments within the content material being moderated.
Explainability – Finish customers could understand the platform as biased or unjust if content material will get flagged or eliminated with out justification, leading to a poor person expertise. Equally, the absence of clear explanations can render the content material moderation course of inefficient, time-consuming, and expensive for moderators.
Adversarial nature – The adversarial nature of image-based content material moderation presents a novel problem to traditional ML-based approaches. Dangerous actors can try and evade content material moderation mechanisms by altering the content material in numerous methods, similar to utilizing synonyms of photos or embedding their precise content material inside a bigger physique of non-offending content material. This requires fixed monitoring and updating of the mannequin to detect and reply to such adversarial ways.

Multi-modal reasoning with BLIP-2

Multi-modality ML fashions check with fashions that may deal with and combine information from a number of sources or modalities, similar to photos, textual content, audio, video, and different types of structured or unstructured information. One of many in style multi-modality fashions is the visual-language fashions similar to BLIP-2, which mixes laptop imaginative and prescient and pure language processing (NLP) to grasp and generate each visible and textual info. These fashions allow computer systems to interpret the which means of photos and textual content in a means that mimics human understanding. Imaginative and prescient-language fashions can sort out quite a lot of duties, together with picture captioning, picture textual content retrieval, visible query answering, and extra. For instance, a picture captioning mannequin can generate a pure language description of a picture, and a picture textual content retrieval mannequin can seek for photos based mostly on a textual content question. Visible query answering fashions can reply to pure language questions on photos, and multi-modal chatbots can use visible and textual inputs to generate responses. By way of content material moderation, you should utilize this functionality to question in opposition to a listing of questions.

BLIP-2 comprises three elements. The primary part is a frozen picture encoder, ViT-L/14 from CLIP, which takes picture information as enter. The second part is a frozen LLM, FlanT5, which outputs textual content. The third part is a trainable module known as Q-Former, a light-weight transformer that connects the frozen picture encoder with the frozen LLM. Q-Former employs learnable question vectors to extract visible options from the frozen picture encoder and feeds essentially the most helpful visible characteristic to the LLM to output the specified textual content.

The pre-training course of includes two phases. Within the first stage, vision-language illustration studying is carried out to show Q-Former to be taught essentially the most related visible illustration for the textual content. Within the second stage, vision-to-language generative studying is carried out by connecting the output of Q-Former to a frozen LLM and coaching Q-Former to output visible representations that may be interpreted by the LLM.

BLIP-2 achieves state-of-the-art efficiency on numerous vision-language duties regardless of having considerably fewer trainable parameters than current strategies. The mannequin additionally demonstrates rising capabilities of zero-shot image-to-text technology that may comply with pure language directions. The next illustration is modified from the authentic analysis paper.

Resolution overview

The next diagram illustrates the answer structure.

Within the following sections, we reveal how one can deploy BLIP-2 to an Amazon SageMaker endpoint, and use BLIP-2 and an LLM for content material moderation.


You want an AWS account with an AWS Identification and Entry Administration (IAM) function with permissions to handle assets created as a part of the answer. For particulars, check with Create a standalone AWS account.

If that is your first time working with Amazon SageMaker Studio, you first must create a SageMaker area. Moreover, chances are you’ll must request a service quota improve for the corresponding SageMaker internet hosting situations. For the BLIP-2 mannequin, we use an ml.g5.2xlarge SageMaker internet hosting occasion. For the Llama 2 13B mannequin, we use an ml.g5.12xlarge SageMaker internet hosting occasion.

Deploy BLIP-2 to a SageMaker endpoint

You’ll be able to host an LLM on SageMaker utilizing the Massive Mannequin Inference (LMI) container that’s optimized for internet hosting giant fashions utilizing DJLServing. DJLServing is a high-performance common mannequin serving answer powered by the Deep Java Library (DJL) that’s programming language agnostic. To be taught extra about DJL and DJLServing, check with Deploy giant fashions on Amazon SageMaker utilizing DJLServing and DeepSpeed mannequin parallel inference. With the assistance of the SageMaker LMI container, the BLIP-2 mannequin could be simply carried out with the Hugging Face library and hosted on SageMaker. You’ll be able to run blip2-sagemaker.ipynb for this step.

To arrange the Docker picture and mannequin file, you must retrieve the Docker picture of DJLServing, package deal the inference script and configuration recordsdata as a mannequin.tar.gz file, and add it to an Amazon Easy Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket. You’ll be able to check with the inference script and configuration file for extra particulars.

inference_image_uri = image_uris.retrieve(
framework=”djl-deepspeed”, area=sess.boto_session.region_name, model=”0.22.1″
! tar czvf mannequin.tar.gz blip2/
s3_code_artifact = sess.upload_data(“mannequin.tar.gz”, bucket, s3_code_prefix)

When the Docker picture and inference associated recordsdata are prepared, you create the mannequin, the configuration for the endpoint, and the endpoint:

from sagemaker.utils import name_from_base
blip_model_version = “blip2-flan-t5-xl”
model_name = name_from_base(blip_model_version)
mannequin = Mannequin(

When the endpoint standing turns into in service, you possibly can invoke the endpoint for picture captioning and the instructed zero-shot vision-to-language technology job. For the picture captioning job, you solely must go a picture to the endpoint:

import base64
import json
from PIL import Picture

smr_client = boto3.consumer(“sagemaker-runtime”)

def encode_image(img_file):
with open(img_file, “rb”) as image_file:
img_str = base64.b64encode(image_file.learn())
base64_string = img_str.decode(“latin1”)
return base64_string

def run_inference(endpoint_name, inputs):
response = smr_client.invoke_endpoint(
EndpointName=endpoint_name, Physique=json.dumps(inputs)

test_image = “carcrash-ai.jpeg”
base64_string = encode_image(test_image)
inputs = {“picture”: base64_string}
run_inference(endpoint_name, inputs)

For the instructed zero-shot vision-to-language technology job, along with the enter picture, you must outline the query as a immediate:

base64_string = encode_image(test_image)
inputs = {“immediate”: “Query: what occurred on this photograph? Reply:”, “picture”: base64_string}
run_inference(endpoint_name, inputs)

Use BLIP-2 and LLM for content material moderation

On this stage, you can also make queries on the given picture and retrieve hidden info. With the LLM, you manage the queries and retrieve info to generate the JSON format outcome. You’ll be able to roughly break up this job into the next two sub-tasks:

Extract info from the picture with the BLIP-2 mannequin.
Generate the ultimate outcome and clarification with the LLM.

Extract info from the picture with the BLIP-2 mannequin

To retrieve sufficient helpful hidden info from the given picture, you must outline queries. As a result of every question will invoke the endpoint as soon as, many queries will result in longer processing time. Due to this fact, we advise making queries top quality and canopy all insurance policies but additionally with out duplicated. In our pattern code, we outline the queries as follows:

check_list = (
“Does this photograph include full bare individual?”,
“Does this photograph include topless individual?”,
“Does this photograph include weapon?”,
“Does this photograph include contact info?”,
“Does this photograph include a smoker?”,
“Does this photograph include blood?”,
“Are there individuals combating on this photograph?”,
“Does this photograph include harassment phrases?”

With the previous queries, invoke the endpoint of BLIP-2 to retrieve the knowledge with the next code:

test_image = “./surf_swimwear.png”
raw_image =‘RGB’)

base64_string = encode_image(test_image)
conversations = “”””””
for query in check_list:
inputs = {“immediate”: f”Query: {query}? Reply:”, “picture”: base64_string}
response = run_inference(endpoint_name, inputs)
conversations += f”””
Query: {query}
Reply: {response}.

Along with the knowledge retrieved by queries, you will get info with the picture captioning job by invoking the endpoint with out the immediate area within the payload:

inputs = {“picture”: base64_string}
response = smr_client.invoke_endpoint(
EndpointName=endpoint_name, Physique=json.dumps(inputs)
image_caption = response(“Physique”).learn().decode(‘utf-8’)

You’ll be able to mix the contents of queries and solutions with the picture caption and use this retrieved info for the downstream job, described within the subsequent part under.

Generate the ultimate outcome and clarification with the LLM

Massive language fashions (LLMs) similar to Llama 2 can generate high-quality outcomes with the correct immediate template. Utilizing Amazon SageMaker JumpStart, ML practitioners can select from a broad collection of publicly accessible basis fashions. With just some clicks in SageMaker Studio, now you can uncover and deploy Llama 2.

The ultimate outcomes depend on a LLM with a particular immediate template. Such immediate consists of: the moderation coverage based mostly on classes of inappropriate or offensive moderation classes; picture info extracted from BLIP-2; the query template to the LLM asking if the photograph comprises unsafe content material and requesting its class and purpose if unsafe; and directions to output the ends in JSON format. The designed immediate template permits the LLM to find out if the picture violates the moderation coverage, establish the class of violation, clarify why, and supply the output in a structured JSON format.

The core supply code is as follows:

prompt_template = f”””
The next is our firm’s content material moderation coverage, based mostly on the moderation coverage, we collect picture info from the person uploaded picture. Please reply the query with json format.

###### moderation coverage ######

###### Picture info ######

###### Query ######
Primarily based on the next Moderation coverage and QA, inform me if the photograph containes unsafe content material, additionally give its class and purpose if it is unsafe. Please anwser the query with the next format and solely put clarification into the explanation area:

prompt_template += “””
“flag”: “xxx”,
“class”: “xxx”,
“purpose”: “the reason being …”

dialog = (
{“function”: “person”, “content material”: prompt_template}

You’ll be able to customise the immediate based mostly by yourself use case. Confer with the pocket book for extra particulars. When the immediate is prepared, you possibly can invoke the LLM endpoint to generate outcomes:

endpoint_name = “jumpstart-dft-meta-textgeneration-llama-2-70b-f”

def query_endpoint(payload):
consumer = boto3.consumer(“sagemaker-runtime”)
response = consumer.invoke_endpoint(
response = response(“Physique”).learn().decode(“utf8”)
response = json.hundreds(response)
return response

payload = {
“inputs”: (dialog),
“parameters”: {“max_new_tokens”: 256, “top_p”: 0.9, “temperature”: 0.5}
outcome = query_endpoint(payload)(0)

A part of the generated output is as follows:

> Assistant: {
“flag”: “unsafe”,
“class”: “Suggestive”,
“purpose”: “The photograph comprises a topless individual, which is taken into account suggestive content material.”

The photograph comprises a topless individual, which violates the moderation coverage’s rule quantity 2, which states that suggestive content material consists of “Feminine Swimwear Or Underwear, Male Swimwear Or Underwear, Partial Nudity, Barechested Male, Revealing Garments and Sexual Conditions.” Due to this fact, the photograph is taken into account unsafe and falls below the class of Suggestive.

Sometimes, Llama 2 attaches extra clarification in addition to the reply from the assistant. You would use the parsing code to extract JSON information from the unique generated outcomes:

reply = outcome(‘technology’)(‘content material’).break up(‘}’)(0)+’}’

Benefits of generative approaches

The previous sections confirmed how one can implement the core a part of mannequin inference. On this part, we cowl numerous facets of generative approaches, together with comparisons with standard approaches and views.

The next desk compares every method.

Generative Strategy
Classification Strategy

Buying labeled information
Pre-trained mannequin on numerous photos, zero-shot inference
Requires information from all forms of classes

Mannequin generalization
Pre-trained mannequin with numerous forms of photos
Requires a big quantity of content material moderation associated information to enhance mannequin generalization

Operational effectivity
Zero-shot capabilities
Requires coaching the mannequin for recognizing completely different patterns, and retraining when labels are added

Reasoning because the textual content output, nice person expertise
Laborious to realize reasoning, exhausting to elucidate and interpret

Adversarial nature
Excessive frequency retraining

Potential use instances of multi-modal reasoning past content material moderation

The BLIP-2 fashions could be utilized to suit a number of functions with or with out fine-tuning, which incorporates the next:

Picture captioning – This asks the mannequin to generate a textual content description for the picture’s visible content material. As illustrated within the following instance picture (left), we will have “a person is standing on the seaside with a surfboard” because the picture description.
Visible query answering –  As the instance picture within the center reveals, we will ask “Is it business associated content material” and we have now “sure” as the reply. As well as, BLIP-2 helps the multi-round dialog and outputs the next query: “Why do you assume so?” Primarily based on the visible cue and LLM capabilities, BLIP-2 outputs “it’s an indication for amazon.”
Picture textual content retrieval – Given the query as “Textual content on the picture”, we will extract the picture textual content “it’s monday however preserve smiling” as demonstrated within the picture on the correct.

The next photos present examples to reveal the zero-shot image-to-text functionality of visible data reasoning.

As we will see from numerous examples above, multi-modality fashions open up new alternatives for fixing advanced issues that conventional single-modality fashions would wrestle to deal with.

Clear up

To keep away from incurring future costs, delete the assets created as a part of this submit. You are able to do this by following the directions within the pocket book cleanup part, or delete the created endpoints by way of the SageMaker console and assets saved within the S3 bucket.


On this submit, we mentioned the significance of content material moderation within the digital world and highlighted its challenges. We proposed a brand new technique to assist enhance content material moderation with picture information and carry out query answering in opposition to the photographs to robotically extract helpful info. We additionally offered additional dialogue on some great benefits of utilizing a generative AI-based method in comparison with the normal classification-based method. Lastly, we illustrated the potential use instances of visual-language fashions past content material moderation.

We encourage you to be taught extra by exploring SageMaker and constructing an answer utilizing the multi-modality answer offered on this submit and a dataset related to your small business.

In regards to the Authors

Gordon Wang is a Senior AI/ML Specialist TAM at AWS. He helps strategic clients with AI/ML greatest practices cross many industries. He’s captivated with laptop imaginative and prescient, NLP, generative AI, and MLOps. In his spare time, he loves working and mountaineering.

Yanwei Cui, PhD, is a Senior Machine Studying Specialist Options Architect at AWS. He began machine studying analysis at IRISA (Analysis Institute of Pc Science and Random Programs), and has a number of years of expertise constructing AI-powered industrial functions in laptop imaginative and prescient, pure language processing, and on-line person habits prediction. At AWS, he shares his area experience and helps clients unlock enterprise potentials and drive actionable outcomes with machine studying at scale. Outdoors of labor, he enjoys studying and touring.

Melanie Li, PhD, is a Senior AI/ML Specialist TAM at AWS based mostly in Sydney, Australia. She helps enterprise clients construct options utilizing state-of-the-art AI/ML instruments on AWS and gives steerage on architecting and implementing ML options with greatest practices. In her spare time, she likes to discover nature and spend time with household and buddies.


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