Modular visible query answering through code era – Google Analysis Weblog



Posted by Sanjay Subramanian, PhD pupil, UC Berkeley, and Arsha Nagrani, Analysis Scientist, Google Analysis, Notion Crew

Visible query answering (VQA) is a machine studying process that requires a mannequin to reply a query about a picture or a set of photographs. Standard VQA approaches want a considerable amount of labeled coaching knowledge consisting of hundreds of human-annotated question-answer pairs related to photographs. Lately, advances in large-scale pre-training have led to the event of VQA strategies that carry out nicely with fewer than fifty coaching examples (few-shot) and with none human-annotated VQA coaching knowledge (zero-shot). Nevertheless, there may be nonetheless a major efficiency hole between these strategies and state-of-the-art absolutely supervised VQA strategies, corresponding to MaMMUT and VinVL. Particularly, few-shot strategies wrestle with spatial reasoning, counting, and multi-hop reasoning. Moreover, few-shot strategies have usually been restricted to answering questions on single photographs.

To enhance accuracy on VQA examples that contain complicated reasoning, in “Modular Visible Query Answering through Code Technology,” to look at ACL 2023, we introduce CodeVQA, a framework that solutions visible questions utilizing program synthesis. Particularly, when given a query about a picture or set of photographs, CodeVQA generates a Python program (code) with easy visible capabilities that enable it to course of photographs, and executes this program to find out the reply. We display that within the few-shot setting, CodeVQA outperforms prior work by roughly 3% on the COVR dataset and a pair of% on the GQA dataset.


The CodeVQA strategy makes use of a code-writing massive language mannequin (LLM), corresponding to PALM, to generate Python packages (code). We information the LLM to accurately use visible capabilities by crafting a immediate consisting of an outline of those capabilities and fewer than fifteen “in-context” examples of visible questions paired with the related Python code for them. To pick out these examples, we compute embeddings for the enter query and of all the questions for which we now have annotated packages (a randomly chosen set of fifty). Then, we choose questions which have the very best similarity to the enter and use them as in-context examples. Given the immediate and query that we need to reply, the LLM generates a Python program representing that query.

We instantiate the CodeVQA framework utilizing three visible capabilities: (1) question, (2) get_pos, and (3) find_matching_image.

Question, which solutions a query a few single picture, is carried out utilizing the few-shot Plug-and-Play VQA (PnP-VQA) technique. PnP-VQA generates captions utilizing BLIP — an image-captioning transformer pre-trained on thousands and thousands of image-caption pairs — and feeds these right into a LLM that outputs the solutions to the query.

Get_pos, which is an object localizer that takes an outline of an object as enter and returns its place within the picture, is carried out utilizing GradCAM. Particularly, the outline and the picture are handed by way of the BLIP joint text-image encoder, which predicts an image-text matching rating. GradCAM takes the gradient of this rating with respect to the picture options to seek out the area most related to the textual content.

Find_matching_image, which is utilized in multi-image questions to seek out the picture that finest matches a given enter phrase, is carried out by utilizing BLIP textual content and picture encoders to compute a textual content embedding for the phrase and a picture embedding for every picture. Then the dot merchandise of the textual content embedding with every picture embedding signify the relevance of every picture to the phrase, and we choose the picture that maximizes this relevance.

The three capabilities could be carried out utilizing fashions that require little or no annotation (e.g., textual content and image-text pairs collected from the net and a small variety of VQA examples). Moreover, the CodeVQA framework could be simply generalized past these capabilities to others {that a} person may implement (e.g., object detection, picture segmentation, or information base retrieval).

Illustration of the CodeVQA technique. First, a big language mannequin generates a Python program (code), which invokes visible capabilities that signify the query. On this instance, a easy VQA technique (question) is used to reply one a part of the query, and an object localizer (get_pos) is used to seek out the positions of the objects talked about. Then this system produces a solution to the unique query by combining the outputs of those capabilities.


The CodeVQA framework accurately generates and executes Python packages not just for single-image questions, but in addition for multi-image questions. For instance, if given two photographs, every displaying two pandas, a query one may ask is, “Is it true that there are 4 pandas?” On this case, the LLM converts the counting query in regards to the pair of photographs right into a program through which an object rely is obtained for every picture (utilizing the question operate). Then the counts for each photographs are added to compute a complete rely, which is then in comparison with the quantity within the authentic query to yield a sure or no reply.

We consider CodeVQA on three visible reasoning datasets: GQA (single-image), COVR (multi-image), and NLVR2 (multi-image). For GQA, we offer 12 in-context examples to every technique, and for COVR and NLVR2, we offer six in-context examples to every technique. The desk beneath reveals that CodeVQA improves persistently over the baseline few-shot VQA technique on all three datasets.






Few-shot PnP-VQA










Outcomes on the GQA, COVR, and NLVR2 datasets, displaying that CodeVQA persistently improves over few-shot PnP-VQA. The metric is exact-match accuracy, i.e., the proportion of examples through which the anticipated reply precisely matches the ground-truth reply.

We discover that in GQA, CodeVQA’s accuracy is roughly 30% larger than the baseline on spatial reasoning questions, 4% larger on “and” questions, and three% larger on “or” questions. The third class consists of multi-hop questions corresponding to “Are there salt shakers or skateboards within the image?”, for which the generated program is proven beneath.

img = open_image(“Image13.jpg”)
salt_shakers_exist = question(img, “Are there any salt shakers?”)
skateboards_exist = question(img, “Are there any skateboards?”)
if salt_shakers_exist == “sure” or skateboards_exist == “sure”:
reply = “sure”
reply = “no”

In COVR, we discover that CodeVQA’s achieve over the baseline is larger when the variety of enter photographs is bigger, as proven within the desk beneath. This pattern signifies that breaking the issue down into single-image questions is helpful.

Variety of photographs




Few-shot PnP-VQA 















We current CodeVQA, a framework for few-shot visible query answering that depends on code era to carry out multi-step visible reasoning. Thrilling instructions for future work embrace increasing the set of modules used and creating the same framework for visible duties past VQA. We word that care needs to be taken when contemplating whether or not to deploy a system corresponding to CodeVQA, since vision-language fashions like those utilized in our visible capabilities have been proven to exhibit social biases. On the identical time, in comparison with monolithic fashions, CodeVQA provides further interpretability (by way of the Python program) and controllability (by modifying the prompts or visible capabilities), that are helpful in manufacturing techniques.


This analysis was a collaboration between UC Berkeley’s Synthetic Intelligence Analysis lab (BAIR) and Google Analysis, and was performed by Sanjay Subramanian, Medhini Narasimhan, Kushal Khangaonkar, Kevin Yang, Arsha Nagrani, Cordelia Schmid, Andy Zeng, Trevor Darrell, and Dan Klein.


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