The Hottest Summer time Recorded Globally, By Far — Summer time 2023



Picture from Copernicus Local weather Change Providers

The Copernicus Local weather Change Service (C3S), carried out by the European Middle for Medium Vary Climate Forecasts on behalf of the European Fee, routinely publishes month-to-month local weather bulletins reporting on modifications noticed within the international floor air temperature, sea ice, and hydrological variables. The entire reported findings are primarily based on computer-generated analyses utilizing billions of measurements from satellites, ships, plane, and climate stations around the globe.

Essential occasions throughout June–July–August 2023:

The June-July-August (JJA) season of 2023 was the warmest on report globally by a large margin, with a median temperature of 16.77°C, 0.66°C above common.
The European common temperature for the summer time of 2023 was 19.63°C, which at 0.83°C above common was the fifth warmest summer time season.
June–July–August 2023 confirmed report excessive sea floor temperature (SST) anomalies within the North Atlantic and globally.
The summer time of 2023 skilled marine warmth waves in a number of areas round Europe, corresponding to round Eire and the UK in June and within the Mediterranean in July and August.
June–July–August 2023 noticed above-average rainfall throughout most of Western Europe and Turkey, with native rainfall information resulting in flooding. This was additionally the case in western and northeastern North America, elements of Asia, Chile and Brazil, and northwestern Australia.
In distinction, Iceland, the Alps, northern Scandinavia, central Europe, a lot of Asia, Canada, southern North America, and most of South America skilled drier than common situations. In some areas, this led to vital fires.

Floor air temperatures in August 2023:

Copernicus, Globally averaged floor air temperature anomalies relative to 1991–2020 for August from 1940 to 2023. Data: ERA5. Supply: C3S / ECMWF.

August 2023 was the warmest recorded August month globally, and hotter than all different months besides July 2023.
The worldwide imply floor air temperature of 16.82°C for August 2023 was 0.71°C hotter than the 1991–2020 common for August and 0.31°C hotter than the earlier warmest month of August 2016.
August is estimated to have been about 1.5 levels hotter than the pre-industrial common for 1850–1900.
There have been warmth waves in a number of areas of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly southern Europe, the southern United States and Japan.
Effectively above common temperatures occurred in Australia, a number of South American nations and round giant elements of Antarctica.
Marine air temperatures have been nicely above common in a number of different areas.
The worldwide temperature anomaly for the primary 8 months of 2023 (January–August) ranks because the second warmest recorded, simply 0.01°C over 2016, which holds the recorded report.

Samantha Burgess, Deputy Director of the Copernicus Local weather Change Service (C3S), feedback: “International temperature information proceed to be damaged in 2023, with the warmest month of August following the warmest recorded months of July and June resulting in the warmest Arctic summer time in our report sequence courting again to 1940. 2023 at present ranks because the second warmest, solely 0.01ºC behind 2016 with 4 months remaining within the yr. In the meantime, August noticed the world’s oceans report each the warmest each day floor temperature on report and the warmest month on report. The scientific proof is overwhelming – we’ll proceed to see local weather information and extra intense and frequent excessive climate occasions affecting society and ecosystems till we cease emitting greenhouse gases.”

Sea floor temperatures in August 2023:

The each day international sea floor temperature (°C) averaged over the area 60°S–60°N plotted as a time sequence for every year from 1 January 1979 to 31 August 2023. The years 2023 and 2016 are proven with thick traces shaded in mild purple and darkish purple, respectively. Different years are proven with skinny traces and shaded by decade, from blue (Nineteen Seventies/80s) to brick purple (2020s). Data: ERA5. Writer: C3S / ECMWF.

International common sea floor temperatures continued to rise in August, following an extended interval of unusually excessive temperatures since April 2023.
The each day international common sea floor temperatures have exceeded the earlier highs from March 2016 daily from July 31 to August 31, 2023.
August as a complete had the very best recorded international month-to-month imply sea floor temperatures at 20.98°C, which was nicely above the August common, with an anomaly of 0.55°C.
North Atlantic floor temperatures on August 5 have been larger than the earlier report of 24.81°C, which was measured in September 2022, and have been above this stage nearly daily since. A brand new excessive of 25.19°C was measured on 31 August.
Marine warmth waves developed within the North Atlantic west of the Iberian Peninsula, however declined over many of the Mediterranean.
The El Niño impact continued to develop over the equatorial japanese Pacific.

The ocean ice state of affairs in August 2023:

Antarctic sea ice extent remained at a report low for the season, with a month-to-month worth 12 % under common, by far the biggest destructive deviation for August since satellite tv for pc observations started.
Sea ice concentrations confirmed the biggest below-average deviations within the northern Ross Sea and within the southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans, whereas above-average concentrations prevailed within the Bellingshausen-Amundsen Sea sector.
Arctic sea ice extent was longer under common than in July, 10 % under common, however nicely above the report low from August 2012.
Whereas many of the central Arctic Ocean had below-average sea ice concentrations, a stretch of above-average concentrations remained north of the Kara and Laptev Seas.

August 2023 hydrological highlights:

August 2023 was wetter than common throughout a lot of Central Europe and Scandinavia, typically with heavy rains resulting in flooding. It was wetter than common additionally in a longitudinal extent in Jap Europe.
Throughout the Iberian Peninsula, southern France, Iceland and far of japanese Europe, together with the southern Balkans, it was drier than regular, with fires in France, Greece, Italy and Portugal.
It was wetter than regular in northeastern and western North America, with Hurricane Hilary hitting California and western Mexico and triggering flooding. It was additionally wetter than common throughout a lot of Asia, with rainfall inflicting landslides in Tajikistan and elements of Chile and Brazil.
It was drier than regular within the southern United States and northern Mexico, two latitude bands throughout Asia and huge elements of South America.

Extra data on sea floor temperatures in August 2023 could be discovered right here.

Extra details about local weather variations in August and local weather updates from earlier months, excessive decision graphics and video could be downloaded right here.

Solutions to often requested questions on temperature monitoring could be discovered right here.

*The worldwide sea floor temperature (SST) outcomes introduced listed here are primarily based on ERA5 SST information averaged over the 60°S – 60°N area. Observe that ERA5 SSTs are estimates of ocean temperature at about 10 m depth (often known as base temperature). The outcomes, e.g. date of peak in 2023, might differ from different SST providers that present temperature estimates at completely different depths, corresponding to 20 cm depth for NOAA’s OISST.

Details about the C3S information set and the way it’s compiled:

Temperature and hydrology maps and information are from ECMWF Copernicus Local weather Change Service ERA5 information.

Sea ice maps and information are from a mixture of data from ERA5, in addition to from EUMETSAT OSI SAF Sea Ice Index v2.1, Sea Ice Focus CDR/ICDR v2 and quick observe information supplied on request by OSI SAF.

Regional averages listed have the next longitude/latitude boundaries: Complete Earth, 180W–180E, 90S–90N. Complete Europe, 25W–40E, 34N–72N, overland solely.

Extra data is accessible right here.

Data on nationwide information and impression:

Data on nationwide information and impression is predicated on nationwide and regional reviews. For particulars see the respective month’s temperature and hydrological C3S local weather bulletin.

C3S has adopted the World Meteorological Group (WMO) advice to make use of the newest 30-year interval to calculate climatological averages and adjusted to the 1991-2020 reference interval for its C3S Local weather Bulletins overlaying January 2021 onwards. Figures and graphics for each the brand new and former interval (1981-2010) are supplied for transparency.

Extra details about the reference interval used could be discovered right here.

About Copernicus and ECMWF

Copernicus is a part of the European Union’s area programme, funded by the EU, and is its flagship Earth commentary programme. The enterprise operates by way of six thematic providers: Environment, Marine, Land, Local weather Change, Safety and Emergencies. It delivers freely out there operational information and providers that present customers with dependable and up-to-date details about our planet and its surroundings. This system is coordinated and managed by the European Fee and carried out in partnership with Member States, the European House Company (ESA), the European Group for Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the European Middle for Medium-Distance Climate Forecasts (ECMWF), EU companies and Mercator Océan, and others.

ECMWF operates two providers from the EU’s Copernicus Earth commentary programme: the Copernicus Environment Monitoring Service (CAMS) and the Copernicus Local weather Change Service (C3S).Additionally they contribute to the Copernicus Emergency Administration Service (CEMS), which is carried out by the EU’s Joint Analysis Council (JRC). The European Middle for Medium-Vary Climate Forecasts (ECMWF) is an impartial intergovernmental group supported by 35 states. It’s each a analysis institute and a 24/7 operational service that produces and disseminates numerical climate forecasts to its member states. This information is totally out there to the nationwide meteorological providers of the Member States. The supercomputer facility (and related information archive) at ECMWF is without doubt one of the largest of its form in Europe and member states can use 25 % of its capability for their very own functions .

ECMWF has expanded the variety of areas the place it operates. Along with the headquarters within the UK and the Computing Middle in Italy, new places of work specializing in actions carried out in partnership with the EU, corresponding to Copernicus, will likely be situated in Bonn, Germany.

Copernicus Environment Monitoring Service internet:
Extra details about Copernicus:
ECMWF internet:

Featured picture: Copernicus Local weather Change Service, Sea floor temperature anomaly (°C) for August 2023, relative to the 1991-2020 reference interval. Data supply: ERA5. Credit score: Copernicus Local weather Change Service/ECMWF.

Courtesy of the Copernicus Local weather Change Service (C3S), by way of press Copernicus Local weather Change Providers.


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