D-Matrix’s Jayhawk II Addresses Edge and Cloud AI Workloads


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The adoption of AI applied sciences is increasing so quickly that the overall out there marketplace for AI processors is anticipated to exceed $100 billion by 2030, Aart de Geus, chief government of Synopsys, just lately stated within the firm’s newest earnings name citing numerous market intelligence companies. The adoption of AI applied sciences is continuing so swiftly by so many gadgets and functions that, basically, AI is changing into pervasive, which signifies that the AI {hardware} market is poised to diversify.

The truth is, even at this time, the market is just about diversified. There are heavy-duty compute GPUs like Nvidia’s H100 that reside in cloud information facilities, serving all varieties of AI and high-performance computing (HPC) workloads possible. These embody, however aren’t restricted to, special-purpose AI processors from Amazon Net Providers (Trainium and Inferentia), Google (TPU), Graphcore and Intel (Gaudi for coaching and inference, Greco for inference), in addition to edge-optimized AI processors like Apple’s NPU and Google’s Edge TPU.

At present, there are just a few architectures in a position to serve quite a lot of AI deployments, from the sting to the information heart. One such structure is d-Matrix’s digital in-memory compute (DIMC) engine structure, which may allow AI accelerators in quite a lot of type components, from an M.2 module to a FHFL card and even an OAM module, for quite a lot of functions, from an edge server or perhaps a PC to a server rack, because of its inherent scalability and built-in SRAM.

Jayhawk chip.Jayhawk chip (Supply: d-Matrix)

Whereas tech giants like Nvidia, Intel and AMD are making headlines amid a generative AI frenzy—seemingly poised to manage the market of {hardware} for coaching and inference going ahead—startups like d-Matrix even have an excellent probability if they provide the proper {hardware} and software program tailor-made for particular workloads.

“In the event that they give attention to a selected workload and have the software program and fashions to make it simple to make use of, a startup like d-Matrix can carve out a distinct segment,” stated Karl Freund, founder and principal analyst of Cambrian AI Analysis.

D-Matrix inference platform

The startup says its {hardware} was optimized for natural-language–processing transformer fashions (BERT, GPT, T5, and so forth.) used for quite a lot of functions from the bottom up, together with machine translation, textual content technology and sentiment evaluation.

“We took a wager in 2020 and stated, ‘Look, we are going to construct the whole computing platform, the {hardware} and the software program, transformer acceleration platform, and give attention to inference,’” stated Sid Sheth, CEO and co-founder of d-Matrix. “(In) late 2022, when the generative AI explosion occurred, d-Matrix emerged as one of some corporations that had a computing platform for generative AI inference. So we form of organically grew into that chance over a interval of three years. All our {hardware} and software program has been foundationally constructed to speed up transformers and generative AI.”

Not like Nvidia or Intel’s Gaudi platforms, d-Matrix’s {hardware} and software program are particularly tailor-made for inference. Fashions that d-Matrix’s processors will use could be skilled on totally different platforms and might also be skilled with totally different information sorts—the d-Matrix Aviator software program stack permits customers to pick out the suitable information format for greatest efficiency.

“The Aviator ML toolchain permits customers to deploy their mannequin in a pushbutton vogue through which Aviator selects the suitable information format for greatest efficiency,” Sheth stated. “Alternatively, customers can simulate efficiency with totally different d-Matrix codecs and select the popular format primarily based on particular constraints like accuracy degradation. Regardless, no retraining is required, and fashions can all the time be run of their natively skilled format if desired.”

This method makes lots of sense, in accordance with Karl Freund.

“This method makes it simple to attempt a mannequin, optimize the mannequin and deploy an answer,” he stated. “It’s a very good method.”

{Hardware} and scalability

The primary merchandise to characteristic d-Matrix’s DIMC structure will probably be primarily based on the just lately introduced Jayhawk II processor, a chiplet containing about 16.5 billion transistors (barely greater than Apple’s M1 SoC) and designed to scale as much as eight chiplets per card and as much as 16 playing cards per node.

With its structure, d-Matrix took a web page from AMD’s e-book and relied on chiplets reasonably than on a giant monolithic die. This supplies flexibility relating to prices and the flexibility to deal with lower-power functions.

“(Multi-chiplet designs) needs to be a value benefit and an influence benefit as effectively,” Freund stated.

Every Jayhawk II chiplet packs a RISC-V core to handle it, 32 Apollo cores (with eight DIMC models per core that function in parallel), 256 MB of SRAM that includes bandwidth of 150 TB/s, two 32-bit LPDDR channels and 16 PCIe Gen5 lanes. The cores are related utilizing a particular network-on-chip with 84-TB/s bandwidth. Every chiplet with 32 Apollo cores/256 DIMC models and 256 MB of SRAM could be clocked at over 1 GHz.

Jayhawk II specifications.Jayhawk II specs (Supply: d-Matrix)

Every DIMC core can execute 2,048 INT8 multiply-accumulate (MAC) operations per cycle, in accordance with TechInsights. Every core also can course of 64 × 64 matrix multiplications utilizing each industry-standard (INT8, INT32, FP16, FP32) and rising proprietary codecs (block floating-point 12 (BFP12), BFP16, SBFP12).

“Whereas they could need to add INT4 sooner or later, it isn’t but mature sufficient for the final use circumstances,” Freund stated.

The primary concept behind d-Matrix’s platform is scalability. Every Jayhawk II has die-to-die interfaces providing die-to-die bandwidth of two Tb/s (250 GB/s) with 3-mm, 15-mm and 25-mm attain on natural substrate primarily based on the Open Area-Particular Structure (ODSA) commonplace at 16 Gb/s per wire. Natural substrates are reasonably low cost and widespread, so d-Matrix received’t must spend cash on superior packaging.

The present design permits d-Matrix to construct system-in-packages (SiPs) with 4 Jayhawk II chiplets that boast 8 Tb/s (1 TB/s) of aggregated die-to-die bandwidth. In the meantime, to allow SiP-to-SiP interconnections, d-Matrix makes use of a standard PCIe interface, primarily based on a picture supplied by the corporate.

For now, d-Matrix has a reference design for its FHFL Corsair card that carries two SiPs (i.e., eight chiplets) with 2 GB of SRAM and 256 GB of LPDDR5 reminiscence onboard (32 GB per Jayhawk II) and delivers a efficiency of two,400–9,600 TFLOPS relying on the information sort at 350 W. The height efficiency could be reached with a BFP12 information format, which makes it pretty arduous to match immediately with compute GPUs from Nvidia.

However assuming that Corsair’s INT8 efficiency is 2,400 TOPS, it’s very near that of Nvidia’s H100 PCIe (3,026 TOPS at as much as 350 W). The startup says that 16 Corsair playing cards could be put in into an inference server.

Schematics of d-Matrix’s Corsair card.Schematics of d-Matrix’s Corsair card. Be aware connections between chiplets and SiPs. (Supply: d-Matrix)

As well as, the corporate talked about that its 16-chiplet OAM module with 4 SiPs, 4 GB of SRAM and 512 GB of LPDDR5 DRAM is about to compete in opposition to AMD’s upcoming Intuition MI300X and Nvidia’s H100 SXM. The module will devour about 600 W, however for now, d-Matrix received’t disclose its precise efficiency.

On the opposite aspect of the spectrum, d-Matrix has an M.2 model of its Jayhawk II with just one chiplet. As a result of the unit consumes 30–40 W, it makes use of two M.2 slots—one for the module and one for the facility provide, the corporate stated. At this level, one can solely surprise which type components will grow to be well-liked amongst d-Matrix’s shoppers. But it’s evident that the corporate desires to deal with all functions it probably can.

“I feel the corporate is fishing, looking for the place they will achieve first traction and develop from there,” Freund stated.

The scalable nature of d-Matrix’s structure and accompanying software program permits it to mixture built-in SRAM reminiscence right into a unified reminiscence pool providing a really excessive bandwidth. For instance, a machine with 16 Corsair playing cards has 32 GB of SRAM and a couple of TB of LPDDR5, which is sufficient to run many AI fashions. But the corporate doesn’t disclose chiplet-to-chiplet and SiP-to-SiP latencies.

“Chiplets are constructing blocks to the Corsair card answer (8× chiplets per card), that are constructing blocks to an inference node—16 playing cards per server,” Sheth stated. “An inference node could have 32 GB of SRAM storage (256 MB × eight chiplets × 16 playing cards), which is sufficient to maintain many fashions in SRAM. On this case, (2 TB) of LPDDR is used for immediate cache. LPDDR can be used as protection for circumstances through which key-value cache or weights must spill to DRAM.”

Such a server can deal with a transformer mannequin with 20 billion to 30 billion parameters and will come toe to toe in opposition to Nvidia’s machines primarily based on A100 and H100 compute GPUs, d-Matrix claims. The truth is, the corporate says that its platform provides a ten× to twenty× decrease whole value of possession for generative inference compared with “GPU-based options.” In the meantime, the latter is on the market and being deployed now, whereas d-Matrix’s {hardware} will solely be out there subsequent 12 months and can compete in opposition to successors of current compute GPUs.

“(Our structure) does put just a little little bit of a constraint when it comes to how large a mannequin we are able to match into SRAM,” Sheth stated. “However in case you are doing a single-node 32-GB model of SRAM, we are able to match 20 (billion) to 30 billion parameter fashions, that are fairly well-liked lately. And we could be blazing quick on that 20 (billion) to 30 billion parameter class in contrast with Nvidia.”

Software program stack

One of many strongest sides of Nvidia’s AI and HPC platforms is their CUDA software program stack and quite a few libraries optimized for particular workloads and use circumstances. This tremendously simplifies software program improvement for Nvidia {hardware}, which is likely one of the the reason why Nvidia dominates the AI {hardware} panorama. The aggressive benefits of Nvidia require different gamers to place lots of effort into their software program.

The d-Matrix Aviator software program stack encompasses a spread of software program components for deploying fashions in manufacturing.

“The d-Matrix Aviator software program stack consists of numerous software program parts like an ML toolchain, system software program for workload distribution, compilers, runtime, inference server software program for manufacturing deployment, and so forth.,” Sheth stated. “A lot of the software program stack leverages broadly adopted open-source software program.”

Most significantly, there’s no must retrain fashions skilled on different platforms—d-Matrix’s shoppers can simply deploy them in an “it simply works” method. Additionally, d-Matrix permits prospects to program its {hardware} at a low degree utilizing an precise instruction set to get larger efficiency.

“Retraining is rarely wanted,” Sheth stated. “Fashions could be ingested into the d-Matrix platform in a ‘pushbutton, zero-touch’ method. Alternatively, extra hands-on–oriented customers could have the liberty to program near steel utilizing an in depth instruction set.”


Jayhawk II is now sampling with events and is anticipated to be commercially out there in 2024.

D-Matrix’s product roadmap.D-Matrix’s product roadmap (Supply: d-Matrix)

“With the announcement of Jayhawk II, our prospects are a step nearer to serving generative AI and LLM functions with significantly better economics and a higher-quality person expertise than ever earlier than,” Sheth stated. “At the moment, we’re working with a spread of corporations giant and small to guage the Jayhawk II silicon in real-world eventualities, and the outcomes are very promising.”


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